Pathogenic microorganisms at concentrations of 1-10 CFU/mL in the bloodstream can trigger sepsis, thus symptoms consistent with the presence of these microorganisms warrant treatment with antibiotics. There are no tests currently available that can characterize these microorganisms in a timely manner — the only available method for this is based on blood culture, which is too slow to influence initial therapy (it takes 12-48 hours for a culture positive flag and 120 hours for a culture negative flag). At 10 CFU/mL, the pathogen’s net weight is about 108 less than the cumulative weight of other plasma proteins, thus any detection mechanism requires significant amplification. Historically, this amplification has been provided by a culture method whereby the pathogenic microorganisms are given the time to replicate to > 106 CFU/mL. For most samples, it takes 24-72 hours for significant cell growth, and the absence of growth at 120 hours results in a “culture negative” diagnosis.